Translation by Kim
Mit dem Glossar wollen wir Begriffe und Fachjargon aus den Artikeln von Queerulant_in erklären. Um Barrieren abzubauen wollen wir deshalb allen Menschen eine Hilfe geben um die Themen von Queerulant_in auch vollständig zu verstehen. Die Erklärungen der Begriffe beziehen sich auf den deutschsprachigen Kontext. Deshalb kann es unter Umständen vorkommen, dass manche Begriffe euch merkwürdig erscheinen, wenn ihr nicht mit der deutschen Sprechweise vertraut seid.
Weil wir ein so gut und umfassend wie mögliches Glossar bereit stellen möchten, sehen wir immer gerne, wenn ihr uns Vorschläge zur Verbesserung oder zum Hinzufügen von Begriffen habt. Dabei wird das Glossar ständig von Ausgabe zu Ausgabe erweitert und mithilfe von Autor*innen von Queerulant_in und anderer Glossare erstellt.
Begriffe, die im Glossar erklärt werden sind jeweils mit einem Punkt gekennzeichnet, bei der ersten Nennung des Begriffes im Magazin.
With this glossary, we want to explain lingo which is used in the articles in Queerulant_in. To reduce barriers, we want to ensure that everyone can understand the topics discussed in Queerulant_in. The explanation of the terms and expressions are special to the German-speaking context. This is why some explanations might seem a bit odd to you, if you are not used to the German-speaking ways of using them.
Because we want to keep this glossary as comprehensive as possible, we are always glad to see if you have any suggestions for improvements of explanations or want to add any words. The glossary is expanded with each issue and has been produced with the help of authors of Queerulant_in and other glossaries.
Expressions explained in the glossary are always marked with a dot in front of them, the first time they appear in the magazine.
§ 175 – Held throughout the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany until 1994. Among other things it contained punishment for sexual acts among male people.
§ 218 – Refers to the German „abortion law“. According to §218, termination of pregnancy is generally illegal in Germany. Women*, Inter*, Trans* and Queers who wish to abort are forced to undergo counseling and scrutiny periods, risking to increase their psychological strain many times over.
Able-bodied – People who are neither mentally nor physically disabled, nor have a (chronic) illness.
AIDS-Relief-Associations – AIDS-Relief-Associations were founded after the first cases of AIDS occurred in 1981. (The first one in Berlin). The main focus of their work is on public education on HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted illnesses and diseases. They also offer support and counseling for people with HIV/AIDS.
Asexuality – Being asexual means not to be interested in any sexual interaction. This is not a deliberate choice (as for instance celibacy) but there is simply no desire for sex. This does not necessarily entail that asexuals don’t desire physical affection or never experience sexuality with others.
Bigender – People who switch between male and female gender roles, deliberately and often visibly.
Bisexuality/Bi – Bisexuality means someone is romantically or physically attracted to people of more than one gender and/or sex, however not always at the same time, in the same manner or to the same extent.
BDSM – Short for bondage & discipline, dominance & submission, sadism & masochism. The acronym is meant to combine the spectrum of Bondage, Power- and Roleplaying, and Sadomasochism.
Boys‘ Love Manga/BL Manga – Manga which put their main focus on desire between male characters. Since the most of the authors and readers are women*, one often speaks of a genre „by women for women“, ignoring the range of identities among its fans and writers.
Christopher-Street-Day (CSD) – The German equivalent to Gay Pride. Refers to the Stone Wall Riots which started in New York’s Christopher Street. The riots, which took place in 1969, were directed against state repression by police towards queers. Particularly People of Color, Drag Queens, Transvestites, Trans*gender as well as Lesbians and Gays were involved in the riots.
CIS*/cis* – The prefix „cis“ refers to the accordance of the gender assigned at birth with one’s own gender identity. Cis is often used to avoid marking only trans*, inter* and non-binary people. The ability to name people cis avoids holding cis as „normal“, with all other genders „the deviance“. In addition, naming „cis“ as such underlines that any gender identity is socially constructed and none is more „natural“ than the others.
Coming-Out – A personal, self-determined process during which people acknowledge and accept their own sexual desire and/or gender identity (also: inner coming-out.), as well as expressing it.
Mostly refers to sexual desire and gender identities which divert from the social norm (cf.: Heteronormativity). Sexual desire and gender identities which comply with the social norm (such as cisgendered people and heterosexuality) therefore do not have a Coming-Out.
Demisexuality – Demisexual people only experience sexual attraction to others once they have built a deep emotional and/or romantic relationship with them.
Die Krake (The octopus) – An annual feminist D.I.Y. zine collecting and publishing features on „alternative“ relationships. Alternative relationship comprises all which do not conform to the ideal of a monogamous, romantic couple: happy singles, sexy queers, polyamorous, connoisseurs of spontaneous sex, communards and passionate roommates, cuddling friends or cuddly pets. The octopus as heraldic animal with its many limbs symbolizes the many possibilities to conduct completely different relationships at the same time. www.diepolytanten.de.tc
Drag Queen – A drag queen is a person (mostly male) who imitates a woman by means of dress, make-up and behavior during a humorous staging or a show presentation. Often, exaggerated and at times also old-fashioned attributes and gestures are being used to achieve a parodic show of the „womanness“ presented.
Dysphoria – Mild to intense discomfort, when one’s own body is not recognized as complying with one’s own gender temporarily or all the time.
Emancipation – In general the liberation from a state of dependence. Emancipation may refer to an individual level as well as to the social process or a social group.
Empowerment – „Empowerment“ aims at (re)instating one’s ability to self-determine one’s own living conditions. During this process individual resources of ability and self-empowerment work together with and depend on political resources of social interest policies.
(University of Applied Sciences Düsseldorf: Master of Empowerment Studies)
Endosexual – Anyone who is not inter*.
Feminism – The term Feminism comprises extremely diverse concepts. Often feminist movements are about attaining the social, economic and political equality of men* and women* and the relating struggle against sexist structures.
Fetishists – People who are sexually aroused by certain materials, objects or body parts for a variety of reasons.
FTM – Female To Male. Cf. Transman.
FTN (female-to-neutrois) – Desire to change their physical appearance in such a manner that they are no longer read as women, for instance by binding or a mastectomy, changing the pitch of their voice (e.g. by taking testosterone), oophorectomy or hysterectomy. (http://asexyqueer.blogsport.de/neutrois)
Gay – A form of desire when a man* or a GirlFag desires another man*/gay/girlfag.
Gender (verb) – In German, as in many other languages, nouns are gendered as male or female (or neutral). Gender refers to rendering all genders visible in written and/or spoken language. There are many forms of gendering texts. If only the male form is used in a text (cf. generic masculine), all „intended“ genders are rendered invisible and stereotypes are reinforced.
Gender_Gap – The gender-gap, the underscore, is a queer and gender-equitable way of writing used in German. In German, endings of nouns are almost always indicating a gender, whereas in English this only happens rarely (e.g.: actor and actress). In German, the gender-gap includes the gendered endings after the underscore to include male, female, and all other genders between and beyond.
Generic Masculine – The generic masculine (GM) is a widespread form not to name people who are not male in the German language. (GM) is used in such a way that groups of women, Inter* and Trans* with only one male person are also referred to using the male form. According to GM; it would be correct to refer to a group of 100 female workers and one male worker using only the term for male workers.
GirlFag – GirlFags or gay women are people of diverse identities who are/were often read as female, whose desire is gay and (either exclusively or among others) directed towards gay/bisexual/… people. More at: girlfag-guydyke.forumieren.com
Equality – Equality designates the state of two or more groups or people obtaining the same rights. Examples are the equality of women and men (female suffrage, equal pay) as well as equal rights for homosexual and heterosexual partnerships.
GuyDyke – GuyDykes or lesbian men are people of diverse identities who are/were often read as male, whose desire is lesbian and (either exclusively or among others) directed towards lesbian/bisexual/… people. More at: girlfag-guydyke.forumieren.com
Hedonists – In everyday language, people who hold short-lived enjoyment over all else in an egoistic fashion are referred to as „Hedonists“. This meaning often claims a fundamental contradiction between ones own enjoyment in general or the emphasis on ones sexual desires in particular, and political action on the other hand, as though fun/sex and politics were mutually exclusive.
Heteronormativity – Heteronormativity describes a state in which heterosexuality and therefore the idea of a binary gender system are understood to be the norm.
Heterosexism – The idea that heterosexuality is normal is the basis to discriminate against and attack other types of desire apart from heterosexuality and genders beyond normative maleness and femaleness.
Heterosexuality – A sexual orientation. The prefix „hetero“ means „different“. In a society which only knows men and women, heterosexuality means to be attracted only to the other gender. If heterosexuality is the norm, it also rules what sexuality and relationships should look like. One can assume that because of heteronormativity, more people are living in heterosexual relationships than would be the case if all sexual orientations were socially accepted and equal.
Homonationalism – Can be a consequence of homonormative politics/thinking, which propagates nationalist ideas: instead of aiming to bond with other countries’ queer scenes, there is on the one hand support for racist stereotypes against Muslims and foreigners, who are seen as homophobic. On the other hand, wars are defended by stating that the homosexual population has to be liberated. Thereby, homonormative gays and lesbians can latch onto patriotic white mainstream.
Homonormativity – designates the state when homosexuality exists as part of the heteronormative system, or when homosexuality is derived from heterosexuality. Instead of questioning the ideals of the bourgeois, white, heterosexual middle class, these are obtained. Monogamy, normative sex in one’s own private home, the gender binary etc., are aspired to without question and regarded as normal, while deviating behaviour is critizised.
Homosexuality – Homosexuality designates (usually based on the image of gender binary) men* desiring men* and women* desiring women*. This can refer to sexuality as well as to love and relationships.
ICD10 – ICD10 is a pathologizing international standard to categorize „illnesses and health problems“. In short, among others, Trans*- Identities, „Transvestism“, preference for BDSM and other deviances from common gender- and sexual norms are presented and categorized as illnesses.
Intersex*/Intersexuality/Inters*x – To this day, in medicine the theory prevails that genitalia have to
conform to the norm and be surgically adapted to either male or female sex. In general, gender identity is defined by outward anatomic appearance instead of genome. Today, the ablility to engage in heterosexual sex is the most important aspect when evaluating the longterm impact of genital surgeries on intersexuals. Among the affected persons and expert personnel, surgeries are harshly criticized. www.intersex.ch (11.5.2006)
Lady(*)fest – Lady(*)fest, also LaDIY*fest, is a political event with a feminist background, mostly organized by WomenLesbianTrans*. Ladyfests comprise theoretical workshops and lectures as well as art and cultural events such as stencil workshops, readings, concerts by (feminist) bands, and such.
Lesbian – A form of desire when a woman* or a guydyke desires another woman*/lesbian/guydyke.
LGBT* (also: LGBT*IQ) – An acronym for LesbianGayBiTrans (or also complemented by the addition „Inter*Queer“). The shortening „LGBT*“ is most commonly used, but can also be broadened with many more terms, such as A for asexual, Q for queer or questioning, etc.
Marginalization – Groups of people being dragged to the „margins“ of society. As a consequence, such groups are excluded from economic and social life.
Mastectomy – A surgery removing mammary glands or breast fatty tissue.
Monogamy – Monogamy describes a type of relationship in which two people have a close and (apparently) exclusive love relationship, without sexual contact to others.
MSM – Men having sex with men is a term functioning regardless of the categories „heterosexual“, „queer“, „gay“, „bisexual“, „homosexual“, therefore applying to a broader target audience.
MTF – Male To Female. Cf. Transwoman.
MTN (male-to-neutrois) – Desire to change their physical appearance in such a manner that they are no longer read as men, for instance by removing facial and body hair, raising the pitch of their voice (e.g. by larynx surgery), or testicular and/or penis removal surgery. (http://asexyqueer.blogsport.de/neutrois)
Misogyny – Designates aversion and devaluation of women* and femaleness. In everyday language one often speaks of „women hatred“ or „hostility towards women“. Misogyny is present for instance in sexist structures discriminating against women.
N-word – The n-word is a pejorative, colonial, and racist term for PoC (People of Colour) and/or blacks.
Nationalism/Patriotism – Nationalism refers to a world view which strongly emphasizes the sovereignity of national states, placing great importance on national identity. Patriotism in turn designates the emotional bond to the nation state one has geographically been born into.
Open / Free space(s) – cf. WLT(I)* / WomenLesbianTrans*(Inter*)
Pansexuality/Pan – Pan refers to a sexual orientation based on the idea that there are many different genders and gender expressions. To people identifying as pansexual, the love, romance and/or sexual desire they feel is independent of the desired persons’ sexual and/or gender identity.
Passing – Being able to „pass“ or be categorized as a member of a certain group without being noticed. The term is often used to refer to Trans*, for instance if a transman is recognized as a (cis-)man. Passing can also refer to race, for instance if PoC are read as white. Passing may also be applied in other areas, for instance with (dis)abilities. However, passing always entails being recognized as a member of a more socially acclaimed group.
People of Colour / PoC – Political self-designation of Blacks and other non-white people who are negatively affected by racism.
Pink list – Pink lists mean lists which are / used to be conducted by police and other prosecution authorities to list supposed gays and lesbians. In Munich, the Pink List is also a gay-lesbian-bi political party, which even obtained a seat in the city council.
Playparty – A sexparty focusing on BDSM, role playing and similar variations from normative sex.
Poly – The term „Poly“ comprises a broad variety of non-monogamous relationship types.
Queer – Originally meaning something strange, funny, unconventional, but also slightly insane. At the end of the 19th century, „Queer“ was mostly used as a pejorative term for non-heterosexual and non-cis people. In the 1960s, the term has been reappropriated by mostly black trans* and Drag Queens as a positive, empowering self-designation.
Queers – Collective term for a wide variety of gender and sexual identities, who mostly define themselves as non-heteronormative.
Queer Theory – Queer Theory is a cultural theory analyzing the relation between assigned sex and social gender as well as desire. Queer Theory originates, among others, in a critical assessment of racist and heterosexist assumptions in previously dominant feminisms. Queer Theory doesn’t comprise one consistent theory, but is rather a diversified concept, with political as well as theoretical aspects. Often, reflecting on one’s own position and the inherent power structures as well as an attempt to deconstruct these power structures, form an integral part.
Race – In German, the English term „Race“ is often used instead of the German „Rasse“, since „Rasse“ has too strong an association to biologist and naturalist ideas. Additionaly, „race“ is understood as a social construct resulting in racism.
Registered Partnership – Also wrongly dubbed „gay marriage“; registered partnership designates an achievement by the conservative gay (and lesbian) movement which is not equal to heterosexual marriage. Registered partnership partially state-approves gay and lesbian partnerships, but nevertheless consciously denies many of the privileges of heterosexual marriage.
Safer Sex – „Safer Sex“ refers to behaviour, measures and practices which minimize the risk of being infected with sexually transmitted diseases and illnesses (such as hepatitis, gonorrhea, HIV … ) when having sexual contact. Among others, using a condom during penetration is an example.
Schlampenau – The first „Holiday in Schlampenau, summer camp for unnatural women“ took place in 2007 and has since become an annual event. It’s a summer camp where Poly – WLT* meet to go on holiday together.
Sexualised violence – Power and violence are also exerted via sexual acts. The term „sexualised violence“ (in contrast to the term „sexual violence“) indicates that those are never about sexuality, neither sexual desires nor their satisfaction.
Slutwalk – Since 2011, „Slutwalk“ designates a form of protest aimed against victim blaming in rape cases, rape myths in general and sexualised violence. Since the term „Slutwalks“ is rejected by many affected, especially those who are discriminated on several levels, the name was changed in many cities.
Standards of Care (SoC) – The Standards of Care are guidelines for the treatment of trans*, which have been worked out by the Harry Benjam Society (Harry Benjamin International Gender Disphoria Association) since 1979. The current, seventh version of the SoC was published in July 2012: http://www.wpath.org/documents/SOC%20V7%2003-17-12.pdf
Tomboy – Tomboy usually refers to girls and (young) women who don’t behave according to the rules, which is to say to conform to female gender stereotypes, but are rather particularly wild, excitable or physically active
Trans* – the prefix trans* indicates something is „beyond, over, further than“. Trans*, transgender, transident or transsexual (see below) therefore designates a (gender) identity defined by features beyond the sexual-biological ones, or stands in opposition to these. Identity, emotion and behaviour are decisive to recognition by oneself and others, rather than merely the body or even genitals. For instance, a person who has an anatomy which is regarded as entirely female can identify fully or partially as a man and intend to be recognized as such (or the other way around of course).
Transmann e.V. http://www.transmann.de/informationen/transfaq.shtml (09.02.2007)
Transwomen (TW) – A person who was assigned male at birth but identifies as female and/or a woman.
Transgender – „Generic term for all transpeople (as used in „Transgender Network Switzerland“). Is also being used to designate: a) people whose gender identity reaches beyond the gender binary; b) Trans who do not desire to undergo any or not all surgical measures“. (Transgender Network Switzerland)
Transgenderradio – The transgenderradio is an online radio station reporting on selected news about trans once a month. This includes current events, protests, interviews, changes in law or publications.
Transidentity – The term Transidentity has the same meaning as Transsexuality, however the term Transidentity is preferred by some Trans* as it puts the focus on ones identity, in opposition to the term transsexuality, which is often understood as pathologizing.
Transition – The process taking place between the realization of being trans and the arrival at the fitting gender identity and expression. The term used to designate the „completion“ of the „steps“ (deemed normal or necessary): outing, taking hormones, sex adjustment surgeries and changing name and gender. Nowadays, transition does not have to be linked to these steps and does not have to be completed at a certain point in time. Gender identity may continue to change over time, therefore, transition may never be completed or may be seen as complete when a person feels like they have „arrived“.
Transman (TM) – A person who was assigned female at birth but identifies as male and/or a man.
Transsexuality – Transsexuality means that a person does not identify with the gender they were assigned at birth.
Transvestite – „People who, for a variety of reasons, wear the clothing of the opposite sex but do not (necessarily) aim to live as the other sex. In some cases, it may be the precursor to Transidentities, or people realize only later that they are trans. For the most part, transvestites do not dare to leave their privacy and thereby suppress an important part of their personality.“ www.transgender.at (10.02.2007)
Trans*Conference – An event for self-empowerment, which gives Trans*, their relatives and others interested the opportunity to host workshops and to exchange with each other. Mostly a multiday event.
Veganism – Veganism is a diet and lifestyle which doesn’t make use of any animal products.
WLT(I)* / WomenLesbianTrans*(Inter*) – Some organisations or spaces are open only to WLT* or WLTI*, which means Women, Lesbians, Trans*- (and Inter*). This is rooted in the call for a safer space, which can be neccessary when dealing with a patriarchal, male-dominated society.
Wendo – Wendo is a concept of self defense centered around women* and girls* which originated in feminist movements. In Wendo, exercises for self awareness and empowerment are taught as well as techniques against verbal and physical assaults.